大家好，歡迎來到「聖經書蟲」！ 我叫伊麗莎白，今天我將談論魯益斯 C.S. Lewis 的《痛苦的奧秘》這本書。這本書於 1940 年由魯益斯出版，他是來自英國的作家兼神學家。
And to tell you a little bit of background about him: he became an Atheist at the age of 15 and returned to Christianity at the age of 33, though he did not become Catholic, he stayed with the Anglican Church. He's particularly known for the "Chronicles of Narnia" and and his apologetic book "Mere Christianity".
告訴你一些關於他的背景：他在 15 歲時成為無神論者，並在 33 歲時回歸基督教，雖然他沒有成為天主教徒，但他留在了聖公會。 他以《納尼亞傳奇》(Chronicles of Narnia)和他的護教書《返璞歸真》（Mere Christianity）而聞名。
In this book, "The Problem of Pain", he argues that human pain, animal pain and hell are not sufficient reasons to reject belief in a powerful and good God.
Now, what is the problem of pain? The problem of pain is that if God were good, He would wish to make his creatures perfectly happy and if God were almighty, He would be able to do what He wished. But creatures are not happy, so God must lack either power or goodness, or both. C.S. Lewis argues that, if the popular meanings attached to the words "good", "almighty" and "happy" are the best ones or the only possible ones, the problem is unanswerable
現在，疼痛的問題是什麼？痛苦的問題是，如果上帝是善良的，他會希望讓他的受造物完全快樂，如果上帝是全能的，他將能夠做他想做的事。 但是受造物並不快樂，因此上帝必定缺乏能力或良善，或兩者兼而有之。 魯益斯認為，如果附加在「好」、「全能」和「快樂」這些詞上的流行含義是最好的或唯一可能的解釋，那麼這個問題是無法回答的。
So the possibility of answering the problem of pain depends on understanding "happy", "almighty" and "good" in a bigger sense. First, C.S. Lewis tackles the problem of omnipotence. There is that common objection against the belief in an Almighty God that God can't produce a rock that He can't Himself lift, and C.S. Lewis quotes St. Thomas Aquinas, and explains that for God only the intrinsically possible is possible. So, nonsense remains nonsense, even if we talk about God.
所以回答痛苦問題的可能性取決於理解 更大意義上的「快樂」、「全能」和「好」。首先，魯益斯解決了無所不能的問題。 人們普遍反對上帝是全能的這種信仰：上帝的全能是指祂無法製造出祂自己無法舉起的岩石，路易斯引用了聖托馬斯·阿奎那(St. Thomas Aquinas) 的話，並解釋說對於上帝來說，只有本質上可能的事情才是可能的，所以， 即使我們談論上帝，廢話仍然是廢話。
After that, C.S. Lewis explains the meaning of the word "goodness". He says that first, if God is wiser than us, then His judgement must differ from ours in many matters. He also explains that we actually don't desire a good God or Father but rather a senile benevolence that likes to see the young people enjoying themselves.
之後，魯益斯解釋了「善」這個詞的含義。 他說，首先，如果上帝比我們聰明，那麼他的判斷在很多事情上肯定與我們的不同。 他還解釋說，我們其實並不想要一個善良的上帝或父親，而是喜歡看到年輕人自得其樂的仁慈的老人。
He says that love and kindness are not the same thing, and in order for us to understand better how God's love for us looks like, he uses for analogies.
The first one is that God loves us like an artist loves his artwork. He is not indifferent how that artwork, that masterpiece is going to turn out, and He puts a lot of work and effort into that masterpiece and doesn't throw it away and doesn't care anymore what happens with that artwork.
Then, C.S. Lewis compares God's love to us with the love of an owner to his pet. He explains that the owner tames - for example the dog - mostly for the man's sake, but that taming does not contradict the interests of the dog.
After that, C.S. Lewis also compares God's love to us with the love of a father to his son, as he says that on one side the love is authoritative and on the other side it's an obedient love; and the father tries to form his son into the sort of human being that he knows, in his superior wisdow, to be the right thing.
Lastly, C.S. Lewis draws a comparison between God's love for us and the love man has for woman. He explains that in that relationship the man cares for the woman, and is not indifferent whether she walks around clean or dirty or whether she takes care of herself to look presentable.
C.S. Lewis also dedicates the part of his book to talk about pain, and to explain what pain can be good for. First, he says that probably 80% of all the pain in the world comes from people acting wickedly against each other.
魯益斯還在他的書中專門討論了疼痛，並解釋了疼痛的好處。首先，他說世界上所有痛苦的 80% 可能來自人們互相惡意攻擊。
And then he proceeds by explaining three functions that pain can have: the first one being that pain is unmasked evil as everyone who feels pain knows something is wrong, and that's the exact opposite of what we see with error or sin as with those two things, the deeper the error or the sin is, the less likely we are to actually notice that we are in error or sin.
And there is a very famous quote in that book about that topic where C.S. Lewis says: [Quote] The second function of pain is that pain shatters the illusion that what we have is our own, and that that is enough for us.
C.S. Lewis says that one of his friends once said that we think of God as an air man thinks about his parachute: he is happy that that parachute exists for emergencies but hopes that he will never have to use it. And that's the exact same thing with us in our relationship with God, because we think - we hope that we will never have to pray for something, that everything will just fall into place naturally. So, we hope that we will never have to "use" God. And C.S. Lewis explains that, as God knows that our happiness lies in Him, He has to make our lives less agreeable.
The last function of pain is that if we feel it we know that we are acting for God's sake as what we are doing is against our natural inclinations, and C.S. Lewis also says that pain provides an opportunity for heroism, which is seized within surprising frequency
Then, C.S. Lewis talks about five objections to hell, the first one being the whole idea of retributive punishment, why punishment for sins is needed at all.
The second one is the disproportion between the eternal punishment in hell and the transitory sin we commit on Earth.
The third objection is the frightful pictures we see in art about hell.
The fourth objection is the question how we could be happy in Heaven if hell exists,
and the fifth objection is that the loss of a single soul implies God's loss of His omnipotence.
I would like to summarize two of those objections, which I found particularly interesting and helpful: the second one and the last one. The second one was the disproportion between God's punishment for us and the sins we commit on Earth. C.S. Lewis says that that problem could be phrased in an easier way by saying that everyone should have an infinite amount of second chances, but he explains that that could be compared with a teacher that sends his student to retake a test:
the teacher simply knows at some point that the retaking of the test will be hopeless for that student and that that student just has failed that test and there is there is no need for giving him a second chance C.S. Lewis says that, as God is omniscient, He knows when that point for us has come.
The fifth objection is that hell implies God's loss of omnipotence, and C.S. Lewis actually agrees with that statement and says that by creating humans with a free will God submits to the possibility of such a defeat and he considers that to be a miracle. C.S. Lewis says that [QUOTE] "For to make things which are not itself and to thus become, in a sense, capable of being resisted by its own handiwork is the most astonishing and unimaginable of all feats we attribute to a deity."
Lastly, I would like to read a quote from the chapter on Heaven. As C.S. Lewis said that we can't discuss hell without also talking about Heaven [QUOTE]
I am considering not how, but why, He makes each should unique. If He had no use for all these differences, I do not see why He should have created more souls than one. Be sure that the ins and outs of your individuality are no mystery to Him; and on day they will no longer be a mystery to you. The mould in which a key is made would be a strange thing, if you have never seen a key: and the ke itself a strange thing if you had never seen a lock. Your soul has a curious shape because it is a hollow made to fit a particular swelling in the infinite contours of the divine substance, or a key to unlock one of the doors in the house with many mansions. For it is not humanity in the abstract that is to be saved, but you , you the individual reader. Your place in heaven will seem to be made for you and you alone, because you were made for it--made for it stitch by stitch as a glove is made for a hand.
最後，我想讀一讀「天堂」這一章中的一句話。 正如魯益斯所說，我們不能在不討論天堂的情況下討論地獄 [引用]：
「我考慮的不是如何，而是為什麼，祂讓每個人都是獨一無二的？ 如果他不需要用到所有這些差異，我不明白為什麼祂要創造這麼多的靈魂。 我們確定你個性的來龍去脈對祂來說不是秘密； 有一天，它們對你將不再是個謎。 如果你從未見過鑰匙，製作鑰匙的模具將是一件奇怪的事情；如果你從未見過鎖，那麼鑰匙本身就是一件奇怪的事情。 你的靈魂有一個奇怪的形狀，因為它是一個中空的，以適應神聖物質具有無限輪廓的特定膨脹，或者像是一把鑰匙，可以打開擁有許多豪宅的房子中的一扇門。 因為要拯救的不是抽象的人類，而是你，你這個個體讀者。 你在天堂的位置似乎是為你和你一個人而造的，因為你是為它而造的——一針一針地為它而造，就像手套是為一隻手做的一樣。」
Now, let's get to my opinion on the book. I would give it 9.5 out of 10 stars, because I really liked C.S. Lewis logical approach to explain the problem of pain. And it's not a 10 out of 10, because, in my opinion, he explained some topics better than others. For example, I found the explanation on human pain excellent, and the explanation on animal pain less helpful.
現在，讓我們談談我對這本書的看法。 我會給它 9.5 顆星，滿分 10 顆星，因為我真的很喜歡魯益斯解釋疼痛問題的邏輯方法。這不是滿分 10 分，因為在我看來，他對某些主題的解釋比其他主題更好，例如，我發現對人類疼痛的解釋非常好，而對動物疼痛的解釋則幫助不大。
28:42 第一章 上帝的全能
48:33 第二章 上帝的良善
01:23:03 第三章 人类的邪恶
02:28:26 第五章 人类的痛苦
03:08:00 第六章 人类的痛苦
03:22:40 第七章 地狱
03:42:30 第八章 动物的痛苦
04:10:06 第九章 天堂